From the Green Business Website article The Benefits of Reclaimed Timber written by S. Stacey:
Today, many varieties of wood which were once abundant and freely available are in very short supply. Some, such as the American chestnut, are to all intents and purposes extinct and not available for commercial use from natural sources. However, there is an alternative supply of wood in the shape of reclaimed timber.
Lumber can be reclaimed from an interesting and diverse range of sources. The most prolific supply is reclaimed from old buildings including barns, factories, and warehouses which contain large volumes of wood, often oak, chestnut and pine. This timber is often in sizable pieces making wood from these buildings the most flexible in terms of future use. Lumber can also be sourced from railway sleepers, fences and even storage vessels like wine barrels, beer casks and pickling containers. These produce wood with great depth of colour and unique patterning. Timber can even be reclaimed from old shipping pallets which can be made from exotic hardwoods due to the need for strength and durability. There is also a supply of timber which is recovered rather than reclaimed. This is lumber from trees which have toppled over, died naturally or fallen into rivers.
The benefits are not just confined to helping the environment. Reclaimed timber is often from very old structures and vessels which were formed of wood from mature trees. Today, the demand for virgin timber means that trees grown commercially are rarely matured long enough to reach their full potential size. Thus, reclaimed timber can afford access to larger planks. The wood from mature trees is stronger and less prone to splitting, as is timber that has been exposed to the elements over a period of time. The wood in old buildings has expanded and contracted constantly over the years and has fully dried out, making it more durable and less prone to warping and splitting. Old wood also tends to have a dense grain making it more stable. One of the most important aspects of reclaimed timber is its character. Every section has a story and no two pieces are identical, giving depth and unique character to anything fashioned from the wood.
It should always be remembered that reclaimed timber is, itself, a finite resource. There are only so many old structures out there to source the wood from and eventually these too will become unavailable. In the meantime, reclaimed wood provides a valuable source of characterful material for producing furniture, flooring and architectural features.